Joseph, and a Tea Vendor named Sami
an article by Kelley Nikondeha in the
2022 issue of The Christian Century
Editor's Note: The
second part of this article follows right after the first part below. The conclusion of the article will appear next
My husband and I travelled to Bethlehem.
My first vivid memory of the place is Star Street, which is traditionally acknowledged as the final portion of Mary
and Joseph’s journey into town. As Claude and I walked the
Advent road, we were met by a local man carrying a round brass tray, offering us hot tea with a fierce and repeated
insistence. Uneasy at first with his incessant hospitality, we swerved up limestone stairs to sidestep him.
Later, however, we returned to sit in the alley by the blue metal door of his kiosk. We learned that his name is Sami
– and that the desperate economic need we have perceived exists as part of a more complex reality.
Bethlehemite economy has been wracked by the separation wall and checkpoints in the West Bank. These creations of the Israeli
government have made it harder than it used to be for tourists to visit, stay, and spend money in the little town of world
renown. Many pilgrims simply avoid Bethlehem entirely for fear of crossing a checkpoint. If they do go, they spend four hours
now instead of four days, and many bring with them fears of Palestinian violence. Rushed in by tour guides only to visit the
Church of the Nativity and a few select shops for souvenirs, they then board their tour bus and hurry out.
They miss the taste
of Sami’s tea, Afteem’s falafel, and fresh-squeezed pomegranate juice in Manger Square. They miss talking with
the people who have stewarded holy sites with care for centuries as an aspect of fidelity to their homeland. They miss both
the economic hardship that permeates the site of Mary and Joseph’s journey and the vibrant life that surrounds it.
Behind the separation
wall, Claude and I were treated as guests. We experienced kindness and joy, a sort of abundance we won’t soon forget.
But innkeepers need to eat, purveyors of tea have school fees to pay for their children, and shopkeepers have medical bills
to settle. Mutuality is part of hospitality—along with a room and a meal we are given the opportunity to offer money
that will allow for provisions for our hosts. In depressed economies, our dollars are a tangible sign of support.
Sami’s welcome was genuine; he also needs us to buy his tea. Both things were true, a common duality in stingy economies where people struggle
And both reflect something of the Advent story in
Luke about the overlap of uneven economies and hospitality among the poor ones, like Joseph and Mary.
The whole world, now under the control of Caesar, meets a decree to register
for Rome’s census.
This is the first such registration under the Syrian
governor, a client ruler in the region. Everyone in the empire goes to their
ancestral hometown to register. This means that Joseph has to go
from Galilee south to Judea – from Nazareth to the root system of his family tree, Bethlehem – to register. Mary, in her very pregnant state, has to travel the rutted terrain with him. When Caesar speaks, everyone moves.
Luke sets the advent scene with an unmistakable economic marker. Caesar’s census
is not about demographic numbers; it is a count of livestock, crops, and potential taxpayers. It is an inventory
of wealth that allows the empire to further spread the burden of taxation. A census is always bad news for the poor, never lightening
their load. From time to time, though, a census in known to ignite rebellion.
the opening verses of Luke 2, the word “register” or “registration” appears four times in quick succession. To ancient readers, this would signal a land preoccupied with taxation. Enrollment in the census to pay taxes to Rome is the immediate
context of this scene. The tax initiative reaches from Syria down
to Judea and from the rulers, like Caesar and Quirinus, to the ruled, like Joseph and Mary.
No one is spared.
Luke doesn’t provide an exact history so much as create a picture of the
world Jesus was born into: economic hardship, a reign of power.
Things art tight – and they will soon get tighter as Caesar calculates the tribute owed to him and his functionaries
(provincial rulers and high priest included). To refuse to pay tribute equals
rebellion and invites the punishment of Roman legions. Caesar’s economy
is precarious and potentially perilous for most people.
Imperial fiat: one word, a single order from a seat
of power, and populations shift without recourse. Luke points with a heavy
hand at the census and registration to highlight not only the economy but also migration patterns, family trees, and roots.
A census is impersonal and mandatory.
No exceptions, not even for a woman whose child is nearly crowning.
History does not corroborate
the kind of census Luke describes, in which people were required to return to ancestral towns to enroll in order to pay taxes.
Imperial administrations typically counted and calculated what they could
extract. There was a census connected to Quirinius, but it occurred after
the birth of Jesus. Still, Luke creates a world that mimics the dynamics he experienced, enfolding his Advent story into the
bigger story for all the times: God arrives into our conflicted lands and broken economies.
with the economy and every-looming loss, Luke shows us an economic world with all its demands, exploitation, and humiliation
for those at the bottom. Against this backdrop of taxation, salvation enters.
And the kind of deliverance Luke suggests is one that deals with realities
like the hunger for daily bread, the fear of land loss, the search for work
and burden of indebtedness.
……. Joseph and Mary make their way from Nazareth to Bethlehem as
the empire and its economy demand. They find long-lost family members awaiting
them, and they squeeze in where they can. Neighborhoods surge with the influx
of relatives coming to register, and every corner of every house hosts someone.
Bethlehemites work to make room for everyone – Joseph and Mary are no exception.
Some of the families returning now have not been here since the Babylonian exile, after which their ancestors settled
in northern villages such as Nazareth. This may be their first contact with
southern relatives and with the landscape that was home to King David. Their
excitement mingles in the air with their economic anxiety.
The travelers enter common Bethlehemite houses built
like simple compounds with a series of small structures arranged around a stall where the livestock stay at night.
Some covered rooms ring the stall, and beyond them are a few private, enclosed rooms where most of the family lives.
There is plenty of space to offer guests.
Luke describes a full house, the private enclosures full and even the covered rooms unavailable.
By the time Joseph and Mary arrive, the only room available is a corner
in the open stall area among the livestock, where a manger stands. Still,
this is within the family compound, and inside they meet the warmth of hospitality.
Most Advent scenes misunderstand
the scenario that greets Joseph, Mary, and others upon their arrival. They are welcomed by family members. We are told that “there was no room
for them in the inn,” but the phrase is better understood as “there was no space for them in the usual guest room
of the home.” Room would have been made for everyone, even if it was
a corner here or a stable there. As long as everyone was under the same
roof, it didn’t matter if they were in a private nook or on a straw mat next to the goats.
The home is bursting at the seams, but Joseph and Mary are around the table for meals, joining in conversations
among relatives. Modern notions of private spaces had no place in the ancient
rubric. Every relative received a welcome, and everyone else adjusted to make it work.
Amid the bustle of family
and the logistics of accommodating everyone, Mary’s water breaks. Maybe
she is among the women preparing the evening meal, chopping cucumbers or pitting olives, when the cooks transform into midwives.
They guide her to the corner of the stall and make room for her to lie down
and for them to huddle around her for the duration of labor. Dinner can
wait; the baby may not.
So Mary experiences the birth of her child not only with Joseph to help but surrounded
by mothers and midwives. She is grateful that her cousin Elizabeth arrived
the day before, that she can rely on her company once again as they cross another threshold together.
She draws from the wisdom of her relatives as she grips their hands. She lets out screams that startle the goats and make the donkey, still tired
from the long journey, anxious.
Mary’s Son – God’s Son – crowns.
At that moment, no one thinks of Caesar or the registration or the coming tax increases.
A new life enters the world. Mary and Elizabeth think that perhaps
a new kingdom has entered too. The birth of the Prince of God’s peace
changes that world. Against the harsh backdrop of an imperial economy, he
comes into the world in the most common circumstances. He embodies the hopes of ordinary priests and farmers for true liberation;
he confronts their fear that life will only get worse for them under this empire.
“The hopes and fears of all the years are met” in the Holy Child as God takes direct action and enters
the story in human skin.
Is there any hospitality on offer in Bethlehem?
This is one of the conversations around Joseph and Mary’s arrival to their ancestral home and, soon after, the
birth of their child. Due to poor interpretation of Luke’s text, Bethlehem
and her innkeepers have historically been burdened with a bad reputation regarding their lack of welcome for the Holy Family. Fadi Kattan is innkeeper and chef at the Hosh al-Syrian Guest House on Star Street.
As a Bethlehemite, he is familiar with the caricature of the inhospitable
innkeeper. “It is contrary to what I know of Palestinians,” he
told me. “We are so open to foreigners and guests.”
He assured me that his fellow innkeepers would never turn away a pregnant woman or any woman in distress, adding that
this local practice of hospitality was shaped by the Abrahamic Faith traditions.
This misreading of Luke
2, mixed with current logistical challenges presented by life behind the separation wall, makes it easy for people to misunderstand
who the original witnesses to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem might have been.
They were people of the land, some of whom might have been Fadi’s ancestors.
Today’s Palestinian Christians still commemorate the arrival of Joseph
and Mary down the cobbled Star Street, and celebrate the birth of Bethlehem’s
favorite son, Jesus. Jesus was born into the extended welcome of Jewish relatives
and non-Jewish neighbors, living stones who bear witness to Jesus in their hometown.
Fadi reminds me that this welcome continues.
In the logic of Luke’s narrative there is another
scenario as well. When families were called to pay tribute, every family
member helped bring in the harvest needed to pay their share. Families would
spread out in orchards to harvest fruits, nuts, or olives. They’d
crowd together under the generous canopy of fig trees at mealtime to share bread and sage tea.
The family presence would make clear that this land was not abandoned
or easy pickings for the imperial interlopers. Yes, a large portion of their
bounty would be given over for taxes. But their presence somehow embodies
a kind of resistance. They were still here.
They could be moved by imperial decree, but not easily erased from their land.
Conclusion next week.